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A forest is a relatively dense, tightly-packed expanse of woodland dominated by trees of one or more species. However, a forest is not just an enclosed space planted with trees; it's an ecosystem in which trees, other plants, animals, fungi and bacteria are interdependent.


More than half of all terrestrial plant and animal species are found in the forest. The forest is organized into several vertically superimposed strata, each offering very different conditions of access to light, humidity and temperature, providing ecological niches for highly specialized species.


The branches and leaves of the tallest trees form the highest stratum, known as the "arborescent", the upper part of which is also known as the canopy. Undergrowth plants such as mosses, grasses, bushes and shrubs form other strata. This division of space also applies to animals: some live mainly in the upper part of the forest, while others live on the ground. 

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